mankind versus nature

Gap-fill exercise

Fill in all the gaps, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if an answer is giving you trouble. You can also click on the "[?]" button to get a clue. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints or clues!
1. A person who hides aboard a vehicle, ship or aircraft in order to gain free passage is called a .
2. For the safety of its passengers, aircraft and ships carry various types of survival equipment. Among the more common pieces found are (solid or inflatable boats),
(inflatable jackets used to keep a person afloat), (food stores),
(medical supplies) and perhaps a (fired from a pistol or tube to create a bright light in the sky to alert searchers).
3. Another way of saying 'to save someone who is in danger' is 'to say to someone'.
4. Forests on mountainsides help to prevent (snow sliding down the mountain) and (earth and rocks sliding down a mountainside).
5. A boat which travels underwater is called a ; a person who works underwater is called a .
6. Some words commonly used to indicate a type of rainfall are (light rainfall), (heavy continuous rainfall) and (a heavy short-lived rainstorm).
7. The arc of colours that can be seen when light falls on a belt of rain is called a .
8 If a plane or ship finds itself in grave difficulties its captain sends out the international distress signal 'SOS', which stands for .
9. The greatest in recorded history occurred on the island of Krakatoa in Indonesia between 26 and 28 August 1883. The force spewed out from the earth was so powerful
that it partially destroyed the island and caused a (gigantic wave) that killed some 35'000 people.
10 are people who venture into unknown regions to find out what is there.
11. The tool used to chop wood is called an ; the long-bladed knife used to clear a path through the jungle is called a .
12. If, for instance, a ship sinks or a plane crashes, rescue organisations send out to look for the missing people.
13. People who climb mountains are called and the equipment they use generally includes (bags with straps worn on the back), (cords made of nylon or other fibres),
(sharp pointed instruments with a handle), and (short pointed shafts which are hammered into the rock or ice).
14. Among the various types of small boats are the (an inflatable plastic or rubber boat), the (a long slender boat, which is low in the water), the (a wooden boat),
and the (a flat platform made of logs of wood laid side by side).
These craft are manoeuvred by means of a (a pole flattened at both ends) or by (two poles each flattened at one end).
15. Other words used to mean 'dangerous' include , and .
16. California is partially on the San Andreas Fault, which makes it a high-risk area for .
17. Three words used to mean 'small house' (in the country) are (a house made of logs of wood), (a small house made of wood, metal or clay) and (a roughly built house).
18. Meteorologists classify a as a wind in excess of 62 kms an hour, and a as a wind in excess of 119 kms an hour.
19. A lack of rainfall in an area over a period of time leads to a , and the resulting effect on agriculture can, in poverty-stricken regions, cause a .
20. Another way of saying 'uninhabited island' is to say ' island'.
21. The two climbers were caught out in the open in a (heavy snow storm) and had to (make) a trench with their (instruments used to make holes in the ground) to
escape the vicious winds.
22. People who have been involved in, but not killed in an accident or catastrophe are called .
23. The American Indians (killed animals for food) with and and .
24. Four of the words above carry the sense of 'leave': to (e.g. leave a sinking ship), to (e.g. leave others who are in danger), to be or
(to be left alone without food, money etc. in an unfamiliar place).
25. The optical illusions we have in places like the desert, when things appear to be floating in pools of water, are called .
26. Static discharges in the clouds during some storms create (forks of light) and (a rumbling sound).
27. A fertile place with water and trees in the desert is called an .
28. The continuous heavy rainfall in countries like India and Pakistan in recent years caused which hundreds of people and destroyed vast areas of crops.
29. An area of low-lying soft wet land is called a .
30. A collective word for small trees, bushes and ferns growing beneath taller trees in a forest is .
31. Another way of saying 'to die of lack of food' is to say to .
32. An organized journey or voyage for a specific purpose, especially for exploration or scientific research is called an .